Android 测试 (四)– 实战分析

本文通过分析一个完整的项目,来学习如何对一个完整的工程比较好的进行编写测试程序
项目地址 ,该项目采用的是 mvp 架构,(关于 mvp 的介绍可以看这里 http://www.jianshu.com/p/f6252719b3af ),mvp 对于测试的好处就是讲 view 逻辑和业务代码分离,我们可以很方便的对业务代码进行 local unit test 的测试。

Android 测试 (四)-- 实战分析
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项目结构

可以看到项目的整体结构比较清晰

  1. 项目代码
  2. Android 测试(Instrumentation test)
  3. Android 测试 相关 mock
  4. local unit test
  5. local unit test 相关 mock

local unit test mock

Android 测试 (四)-- 实战分析
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项目的 model 层采用的是 Repository 模式,在 mock 文件夹中,mock 测试中需要使用的数据源,并提供了注入的接口,这里采用的是手动注入,在后续依赖比较复杂的情况下可以使用 dagger 注入,减少大量冗余代码。
下面看下 mock 的数据源的实现

public class FakeTasksRemoteDataSource implements TasksDataSource {

    private static FakeTasksRemoteDataSource INSTANCE;

    private static final Map TASKS_SERVICE_DATA = new LinkedHashMap<>();

    // Prevent direct instantiation.
    private FakeTasksRemoteDataSource() {}

    public static FakeTasksRemoteDataSource getInstance() {
        if (INSTANCE == null) {
            INSTANCE = new FakeTasksRemoteDataSource();
        }
        return INSTANCE;
    }

    @Override
    public void getTasks(@NonNull LoadTasksCallback callback) {
        callback.onTasksLoaded(Lists.newArrayList(TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.values()));
    }

    @Override
    public void getTask(@NonNull String taskId, @NonNull GetTaskCallback callback) {
        Task task = TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.get(taskId);
        callback.onTaskLoaded(task);
    }

    @Override
    public void saveTask(@NonNull Task task) {
        TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.put(task.getId(), task);
    }

    @Override
    public void completeTask(@NonNull Task task) {
        Task completedTask = new Task(task.getTitle(), task.getDescription(), task.getId(), true);
        TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.put(task.getId(), completedTask);
    }

    @Override
    public void completeTask(@NonNull String taskId) {
        // Not required for the remote data source.
    }

    @Override
    public void activateTask(@NonNull Task task) {
        Task activeTask = new Task(task.getTitle(), task.getDescription(), task.getId());
        TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.put(task.getId(), activeTask);
    }

    @Override
    public void activateTask(@NonNull String taskId) {
        // Not required for the remote data source.
    }

    @Override
    public void clearCompletedTasks() {
        Iterator> it = TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.entrySet().iterator();
        while (it.hasNext()) {
            Map.Entry entry = it.next();
            if (entry.getValue().isCompleted()) {
                it.remove();
            }
        }
    }

    public void refreshTasks() {
        // Not required because the {@link TasksRepository} handles the logic of refreshing the
        // tasks from all the available data sources.
    }

    @Override
    public void deleteTask(@NonNull String taskId) {
        TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.remove(taskId);
    }

    @Override
    public void deleteAllTasks() {
        TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.clear();
    }

    @VisibleForTesting
    public void addTasks(Task... tasks) {
        for (Task task : tasks) {
            TASKS_SERVICE_DATA.put(task.getId(), task);
        }
    }
}

mock 的数据线 实现了 TasksDataSource接口,将 mock 的数据都存储在了类的Map

local unit test

model 层测试

使用了 mockito 来 mock 数据,
再看测试代码之前 先回顾下TasksRepository里面逻辑,方法比较多,挑几个来分析一下




/**
     * Gets tasks from local data source (sqlite) unless the table is new or empty. In that case it
     * uses the network data source. This is done to simplify the sample.
     * 
     * Note: {@link LoadTasksCallback#onDataNotAvailable()} is fired if both data sources fail to
     * get the data.
     */
    @Override
    public void getTask(@NonNull final String taskId, @NonNull final GetTaskCallback callback) {
        checkNotNull(taskId);
        checkNotNull(callback);

        Task cachedTask = getTaskWithId(taskId);

        // Respond immediately with cache if available
         //如果缓存中有数据的话从缓存中获取数据
        if (cachedTask != null) {
            callback.onTaskLoaded(cachedTask);
            return;
        }

        // Load from server/persisted if needed.
        //缓存没有数据则从服务端获取
        // Is the task in the local data source? If not, query the network.
        mTasksLocalDataSource.getTask(taskId, new GetTaskCallback() {
            @Override
            public void onTaskLoaded(Task task) {
                callback.onTaskLoaded(task);
            }

            @Override
            public void onDataNotAvailable() {
            //本地没有数据再从服务端获取
                mTasksRemoteDataSource.getTask(taskId, new GetTaskCallback() {
                    @Override
                    public void onTaskLoaded(Task task) {
                        callback.onTaskLoaded(task);
                    }

                    @Override
                    public void onDataNotAvailable() {
                        callback.onDataNotAvailable();
                    }
                });
            }
        });
    }
    
 
    @Override
    public void saveTask(@NonNull Task task) {
        checkNotNull(task);
        //将数据 储存的本地 和服务端
        mTasksRemoteDataSource.saveTask(task);
        mTasksLocalDataSource.saveTask(task);

        // Do in memory cache update to keep the app UI up to date
        //将数据存储在缓存中
        if (mCachedTasks == null) {
            mCachedTasks = new LinkedHashMap<>();
        }
        mCachedTasks.put(task.getId(), task);
    }

由此可以看出,数据的存储分为三层,缓存,本地存储,服务端存储。优先级递减
接着看 modle 的测试代码。

/**
 * Unit tests for the implementation of the in-memory repository with cache.
 */
public class TasksRepositoryTest {

    private final static String TASK_TITLE = "title";

    private final static String TASK_TITLE2 = "title2";

    private final static String TASK_TITLE3 = "title3";

    private static List TASKS = Lists.newArrayList(new Task("Title1", "Description1"),
            new Task("Title2", "Description2"));

    private TasksRepository mTasksRepository;

    @Mock
    private TasksDataSource mTasksRemoteDataSource;

    @Mock
    private TasksDataSource mTasksLocalDataSource;

    @Mock
    private Context mContext;

    @Mock
    private TasksDataSource.GetTaskCallback mGetTaskCallback;

    @Mock
    private TasksDataSource.LoadTasksCallback mLoadTasksCallback;

    /**
     * {@link ArgumentCaptor} is a powerful Mockito API to capture argument values and use them to
     * perform further actions or assertions on them.
     */
    @Captor
    private ArgumentCaptor mTasksCallbackCaptor;

    /**
     * {@link ArgumentCaptor} is a powerful Mockito API to capture argument values and use them to
     * perform further actions or assertions on them.
     */
    @Captor
    private ArgumentCaptor mTaskCallbackCaptor;

    @Before
    public void setupTasksRepository() {
        // Mockito has a very convenient way to inject mocks by using the @Mock annotation. To
        // inject the mocks in the test the initMocks method needs to be called.
        MockitoAnnotations.initMocks(this);
      //首先在 @Before 中创建出Repository,可以看到在TasksRepository.getInstance 中的两个参数也都是 mock 出的
        // Get a reference to the class under test
        mTasksRepository = TasksRepository.getInstance(
                mTasksRemoteDataSource, mTasksLocalDataSource);
    }

    @After
    public void destroyRepositoryInstance() {
    //销毁创建出的实例
        TasksRepository.destroyInstance();
    }

    @Test
    public void getTasks_repositoryCachesAfterFirstApiCall() {
        // Given a setup Captor to capture callbacks
        // When two calls are issued to the tasks repository
        // 使用 mLoadTasksCallback 来记录 callback
        twoTasksLoadCallsToRepository(mLoadTasksCallback);
    
        // Then tasks were only requested once from Service API
        //第一次调用 gettask 时本地是没有缓存的,所以 verify调用了mTasksRemoteDataSource 的 getTasks,并且其中的参数是 TasksDataSource.LoadTasksCallback.class类型,在第二次调用中,本地已经数据已经有了,所以mTasksRemoteDataSource 的方法只调用了一次
        verify(mTasksRemoteDataSource).getTasks(any(TasksDataSource.LoadTasksCallback.class));
    }

    @Test
    public void getTasks_requestsAllTasksFromLocalDataSource() {
        // When tasks are requested from the tasks repository
        mTasksRepository.getTasks(mLoadTasksCallback);

        // Then tasks are loaded from the local data source
        verify(mTasksLocalDataSource).getTasks(any(TasksDataSource.LoadTasksCallback.class));
    }

    @Test
    public void saveTask_savesTaskToServiceAPI() {
        // Given a stub task with title and description
        Task newTask = new Task(TASK_TITLE, "Some Task Description");

        // When a task is saved to the tasks repository
        mTasksRepository.saveTask(newTask);

        // Then the service API and persistent repository are called and the cache is updated
        //save 时 ,本地和服务端都调用了saveTask,并且本地的缓存 list 会增加
        verify(mTasksRemoteDataSource).saveTask(newTask);
        verify(mTasksLocalDataSource).saveTask(newTask);
        assertThat(mTasksRepository.mCachedTasks.size(), is(1));
    }

     @Test
    public void getTask_requestsSingleTaskFromLocalDataSource() {
        // When a task is requested from the tasks repository
        mTasksRepository.getTask(TASK_TITLE, mGetTaskCallback);

        // Then the task is loaded from the database
        verify(mTasksLocalDataSource).getTask(eq(TASK_TITLE), any(
                TasksDataSource.GetTaskCallback.class));
    }

     @Test
    public void getTasksWithDirtyCache_tasksAreRetrievedFromRemote() {
        // When calling getTasks in the repository with dirty cache
        mTasksRepository.refreshTasks();
        mTasksRepository.getTasks(mLoadTasksCallback);

        // And the remote data source has data available
        setTasksAvailable(mTasksRemoteDataSource, TASKS);

        // Verify the tasks from the remote data source are returned, not the local
        verify(mTasksLocalDataSource, never()).getTasks(mLoadTasksCallback);
        verify(mLoadTasksCallback).onTasksLoaded(TASKS);
    }

    @Test
    public void getTasksWithLocalDataSourceUnavailable_tasksAreRetrievedFromRemote() {
        // When calling getTasks in the repository
        mTasksRepository.getTasks(mLoadTasksCallback);

        // And the local data source has no data available
        setTasksNotAvailable(mTasksLocalDataSource);

        // And the remote data source has data available
        setTasksAvailable(mTasksRemoteDataSource, TASKS);

        // Verify the tasks from the local data source are returned
        verify(mLoadTasksCallback).onTasksLoaded(TASKS);
    }

    @Test
    public void getTasksWithBothDataSourcesUnavailable_firesOnDataUnavailable() {
        // When calling getTasks in the repository
        mTasksRepository.getTasks(mLoadTasksCallback);

        // And the local data source has no data available
        setTasksNotAvailable(mTasksLocalDataSource);

        // And the remote data source has no data available
        setTasksNotAvailable(mTasksRemoteDataSource);

        // Verify no data is returned
        verify(mLoadTasksCallback).onDataNotAvailable();
    }

   
    /**
     * Convenience method that issues two calls to the tasks repository
     */
    private void twoTasksLoadCallsToRepository(TasksDataSource.LoadTasksCallback callback) {
        // When tasks are requested from repository
        mTasksRepository.getTasks(callback); // First call to API

        // Use the Mockito Captor to capture the callback
        // 由于是第一次调用 mTasksRepository.getTasks ,所以会先调用 mTasksLocalDataSource,并且用mTasksCallbackCaptor.capture 记录 callback
        verify(mTasksLocalDataSource).getTasks(mTasksCallbackCaptor.capture());

        // Local data source doesn't have data yet
        //由于第一次调用 get,所以本地数据是空的,会调用onDataNotAvailable 的回调
        mTasksCallbackCaptor.getValue().onDataNotAvailable();


        // Verify the remote data source is queried
        //本地为空,onDataNotAvailable回调中会调用,mTasksRemoteDataSource.getTasks
        verify(mTasksRemoteDataSource).getTasks(mTasksCallbackCaptor.capture());

        // Trigger callback so tasks are cached
        //加载完 task 的回调
        mTasksCallbackCaptor.getValue().onTasksLoaded(TASKS);

    //第二次调用
        mTasksRepository.getTasks(callback); // Second call to API
    }

    private void setTasksNotAvailable(TasksDataSource dataSource) {
        verify(dataSource).getTasks(mTasksCallbackCaptor.capture());
        mTasksCallbackCaptor.getValue().onDataNotAvailable();
    }

    private void setTasksAvailable(TasksDataSource dataSource, List tasks) {
        verify(dataSource).getTasks(mTasksCallbackCaptor.capture());
        mTasksCallbackCaptor.getValue().onTasksLoaded(tasks);
    }

    private void setTaskNotAvailable(TasksDataSource dataSource, String taskId) {
        verify(dataSource).getTask(eq(taskId), mTaskCallbackCaptor.capture());
        mTaskCallbackCaptor.getValue().onDataNotAvailable();
    }

    private void setTaskAvailable(TasksDataSource dataSource, Task task) {
        verify(dataSource).getTask(eq(task.getId()), mTaskCallbackCaptor.capture());
        mTaskCallbackCaptor.getValue().onTaskLoaded(task);
    }
 }

P层测试

选择AddEditTaskPresenter的测试来分析,这事增加 task 的业务

/**
 * Unit tests for the implementation of {@link AddEditTaskPresenter}.
 */
public class AddEditTaskPresenterTest {

    @Mock
    private TasksRepository mTasksRepository;

    @Mock
    private AddEditTaskContract.View mAddEditTaskView;

    /**
     * {@link ArgumentCaptor} is a powerful Mockito API to capture argument values and use them to
     * perform further actions or assertions on them.
     */
    @Captor
    private ArgumentCaptor mGetTaskCallbackCaptor;

    private AddEditTaskPresenter mAddEditTaskPresenter;

    @Before
    public void setupMocksAndView() {
        // Mockito has a very convenient way to inject mocks by using the @Mock annotation. To
        // inject the mocks in the test the initMocks method needs to be called.
        MockitoAnnotations.initMocks(this);

        // The presenter wont't update the view unless it's active.
        when(mAddEditTaskView.isActive()).thenReturn(true);
    }

    @Test
    public void saveNewTaskToRepository_showsSuccessMessageUi() {
        // Get a reference to the class under test
        //手动构造出AddEditTaskPresente r
        mAddEditTaskPresenter = new AddEditTaskPresenter("1", mTasksRepository, mAddEditTaskView);

        // When the presenter is asked to save a task
        mAddEditTaskPresenter.saveTask("New Task Title", "Some Task Description");

        // Then a task is saved in the repository and the view updated
        //确认调用了 mTasksRepository 的 saveTask 方法
        verify(mTasksRepository).saveTask(any(Task.class)); // saved to the model
        //确认 UI 对应的结构得到调用,具体效果不在这里的单元测试验证,在 UI 验证
        verify(mAddEditTaskView).showTasksList(); // shown in the UI
    }

    @Test
    public void saveTask_emptyTaskShowsErrorUi() {
        // Get a reference to the class under test
        mAddEditTaskPresenter = new AddEditTaskPresenter(null, mTasksRepository, mAddEditTaskView);

        // When the presenter is asked to save an empty task
        mAddEditTaskPresenter.saveTask("", "");

        // Then an empty not error is shown in the UI
        verify(mAddEditTaskView).showEmptyTaskError();
    }

    @Test
    public void saveExistingTaskToRepository_showsSuccessMessageUi() {
        // Get a reference to the class under test
        mAddEditTaskPresenter = new AddEditTaskPresenter("1", mTasksRepository, mAddEditTaskView);

        // When the presenter is asked to save an existing task
        mAddEditTaskPresenter.saveTask("New Task Title", "Some Task Description");

        // Then a task is saved in the repository and the view updated
        verify(mTasksRepository).saveTask(any(Task.class)); // saved to the model
        verify(mAddEditTaskView).showTasksList(); // shown in the UI
    }

    @Test
    public void populateTask_callsRepoAndUpdatesView() {
        Task testTask = new Task("TITLE", "DESCRIPTION");
        // Get a reference to the class under test
        mAddEditTaskPresenter = new AddEditTaskPresenter(testTask.getId(),
                mTasksRepository, mAddEditTaskView);

        // When the presenter is asked to populate an existing task
        mAddEditTaskPresenter.populateTask();

        // Then the task repository is queried and the view updated
        verify(mTasksRepository).getTask(eq(testTask.getId()), mGetTaskCallbackCaptor.capture());

        // Simulate callback
        mGetTaskCallbackCaptor.getValue().onTaskLoaded(testTask);

        verify(mAddEditTaskView).setTitle(testTask.getTitle());
        verify(mAddEditTaskView).setDescription(testTask.getDescription());
    }
}


android mock test

Android 测试 (四)-- 实战分析
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/**
 * Tests for the statistics screen.
 */
@RunWith(AndroidJUnit4.class)
@LargeTest
public class StatisticsScreenTest {

    /**
     * {@link ActivityTestRule} is a JUnit {@link Rule @Rule} to launch your activity under test.
     *
     * 
     * Rules are interceptors which are executed for each test method and are important building
     * blocks of Junit tests.
     */
    @Rule
    public ActivityTestRule mStatisticsActivityTestRule =
            new ActivityTestRule<>(StatisticsActivity.class, true, false);

    /**
     * Setup your test fixture with a fake task id. The {@link TaskDetailActivity} is started with
     * a particular task id, which is then loaded from the service API.
     *
     * 

* Note that this test runs hermetically and is fully isolated using a fake implementation of * the service API. This is a great way to make your tests more reliable and faster at the same * time, since they are isolated from any outside dependencies. */ @Before public void intentWithStubbedTaskId() { // Given some tasks TasksRepository.destroyInstance(); //做了两个 mock 数据,一个已完成 一个未完成 FakeTasksRemoteDataSource.getInstance().addTasks(new Task("Title1", "", false)); FakeTasksRemoteDataSource.getInstance().addTasks(new Task("Title2", "", true)); // Lazily start the Activity from the ActivityTestRule Intent startIntent = new Intent(); mStatisticsActivityTestRule.launchActivity(startIntent); } @Test public void Tasks_ShowsNonEmptyMessage() throws Exception { // Check that the active and completed tasks text is displayed //检测这两种 view 是不是都显示了 String expectedActiveTaskText = InstrumentationRegistry.getTargetContext() .getString(R.string.statistics_active_tasks); onView(withText(containsString(expectedActiveTaskText))).check(matches(isDisplayed())); String expectedCompletedTaskText = InstrumentationRegistry.getTargetContext() .getString(R.string.statistics_completed_tasks); onView(withText(containsString(expectedCompletedTaskText))).check(matches(isDisplayed())); } }

Android test

Android 测试 (四)-- 实战分析
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模拟人工点击,并检测响应的页面显示,选择增加 task 的例子来分析

/**
 * Tests for the tasks screen, the main screen which contains a list of all tasks.
 */
@RunWith(AndroidJUnit4.class)
@LargeTest
public class TasksScreenTest {

    private final static String TITLE1 = "TITLE1";

    private final static String DESCRIPTION = "DESCR";

    private final static String TITLE2 = "TITLE2";

    /**
     * {@link ActivityTestRule} is a JUnit {@link Rule @Rule} to launch your activity under test.
     * 

* Rules are interceptors which are executed for each test method and are important building * blocks of Junit tests. */ @Rule public ActivityTestRule mTasksActivityTestRule = new ActivityTestRule(TasksActivity.class) { /** * To avoid a long list of tasks and the need to scroll through the list to find a * task, we call {@link TasksDataSource#deleteAllTasks()} before each test. */ @Override protected void beforeActivityLaunched() { super.beforeActivityLaunched(); // Doing this in @Before generates a race condition. //先删除所有 task Injection.provideTasksRepository(InstrumentationRegistry.getTargetContext()) .deleteAllTasks(); } }; } //检测增加一个 task 到 list @Test public void addTaskToTasksList() throws Exception { createTask(TITLE1, DESCRIPTION); // Verify task is displayed on screen onView(withItemText(TITLE1)).check(matches(isDisplayed())); } //增加数据的操作都是点击并模拟输入的,不是 mock 的数据 private void createTask(String title, String description) { // Click on the add task button onView(withId(R.id.fab_add_task)).perform(click()); // Add task title and description onView(withId(R.id.add_task_title)).perform(typeText(title), closeSoftKeyboard()); // Type new task title onView(withId(R.id.add_task_description)).perform(typeText(description), closeSoftKeyboard()); // Type new task description and close the keyboard // Save the task onView(withId(R.id.fab_edit_task_done)).perform(click()); }

       

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